Thursday, October 29, 2015

Marang (Artocarpus odoratissimus) - royal tropical fruit


 Marang (Artocarpus odoratissimus) - royal tropical fruit
Artocarpus odoratissimus, also called terap,marang, johey oak, green pedalai, madang, tarap, or timadang, is a tree in the mulberry and fig family Moraceae. It is a relative of durian, nangka, and breadfruit (rimas).


Dr Abe V Rotor


 Fully ripe marang is eaten with fingers to enjoy its fresh, sweet taste, and unique flavor that gives its species' name, odoratissimus.   

Tired of common fruits in supermarkets and sidewalk fruitstands?  Try something exotic, such as fruits from the south, Mindanao.  Try marang, a relative of durian, which is known to many, for its unpleasant smell.  In fact, marang and durian share the same odor when ripe, but to a much lesser degree.

 Now and then we have marang on the dining table. It goes well with any meal as dessert. Or it is simply served as is - ripe and easy to pry open, without knife. Just pluck the flesh straight to the mouth, and spit out the seeds.  The seeds are edible, like nangka seeds, which when boiled are enjoyed by young and old alike.  

So what's in marang?  Dubbed as "royal" food, I can imagine its special place on occasions celebrated in the tropical countries where marang grows, like Indonesia, Thailand, and Malaysia. Other than the celebrated ambiance I came to know of its high nutritiove value, from calories to elements needed for good health from a research conducted in Brunei.   

Artocarpus odoratissimus samples obtained from three different locations in Brunei Darussalam were analysed for their proximate composition which consists of moisture, ash, total carbohydrate, crude protein, crude fibre, energy content and crude fat. The mineral and sugar (fructose, glucose and sucrose) were also investigated *

A. odoratissimus flesh contains
  • moisture (wet basis), 67.9 – 73.4 g/100g 
  • ash (wet basis), 0.6 – 0.8 g/100 g
  • total carbohydrate (wet basis),12.0 – 25.2 g/100 g
  • crude protein,1.2 – 1.5 g/100g 
  • crude fibre (wet basis), 0.8 – 1.3 g/100g 
  • energy content (dry basis) 334 – 379 kcal/100g, and
  • proline (wet basis) 85 – 363 mg/kg. 
 The seeds contain 
  •  moisture (wet basis), 31.0 - 55.0 g/100g
  •  ash (wet basis), 1.0 – 1.5 g/100g
  •  crude fibre (wet basis), 3.2 – 4.7 g/100g
  •  crude protein (wet basis), 5.1 - 6.6 g/100g
  •  crude fat (dry basis), 10.1 – 28.1 g/100g 
  •  energy content (dry basis), 488– 497 Kcal/100g 
  •  fresh weight of total carbohydrate1.2 – 2.3 g/100g,  and
  •  proline. 255 – 476 mg/ kg
Of the minerals in both flesh and seeds (potassium, sodium, calcium, magnesium, copper, cobalt, nickel, zinc, manganese cadmium and lead), potassium was found to be the most abundant mineral. No lead was detected in any parts of the fruit. From the quantification of sugar content, fructose was the dominant type of sugar in Artocarpus odoratissimus flesh (5.8 – 13.7 g/100g). From the range of nutrients, A. odoratissimus is generally comparable with A. heterophyllus (nangka), Artocarpus altilis  and A. integer (breadfruit or rimas).

*Proximate analysis of Artocarpus odoratissimus (Tarap) in
Brunei Darussalam

1,2*Tang, Y. P., 2Linda, B. L. L. and 2Franz, L. W.1Department of Agriculture and Agrifood, Ministry of Industry and Primary Resources, Negara Brunei Darussalam; 2Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Universiti Brunei Darussalam, Negara Brunei Darussalam

Table egg recipes to break the monotony of breakfast


Breakfast is seldom without table egg -  boiled or fried.  It becomes monotonous though. Children may even skip breakfast. Many find it a reason the have breakfast somewhere else.   
Dr Abe V Rotor 

We have the same problem at home. So we devised ways to break the impasse. 

1. Sinangag (fried rice) with strips of fried eggs. Or simply mix the fresh egg while frying the rice. Add fresh leaves of kutchai (Allium tuberosum) or onion.


2. This is not new either. Canned salmon or sardine fried with egg. Save the broth for another recipe or for the pets. Just like fried rice, add leaves of kutchai or onion. 


3. Fried egg wrapper, why not? Skilfully wrap sausage with cheese, better still with veggies - asparagus, lettuce, tomato. 


4. Prepare egg sandwich. Know your kids' favorite sandwich. So with the other members of the family. This is perfect for baon (packed snack or lunch)
 

5. Scrabble egg in a variety of ways: just scramble directly on the frying pan; scramble with veggies and mushroom; scramble with bits of ham, chicken, sausage; scamble as topping of toast bread. 

6.
Slice boiled eggs as topping of noddles, liberally add at the periphery. 

7.
Serve salted table egg with sliced fresh tomato. It a big break.

There are a hundred-and-one recipes with the table egg, it is Nature breakfast miracle.  


Small fish like anchovies (fresh dilis), small shrimps, in patties. Do the same with shredded fish or chicken meat. Note fresh leaves of kutchai as vegetable supplement. Serve fresh from the frying pan.  It goes best with piping hot coffee on an early breakfast. Take time, enjoy the day.  Start with a good breakfast.  ~  




Sinarapan – Smallest Fish


Dr Abe V Rotor




 Sinarapan fish in Lake Buhi

Sinarapan, scientifically known as Mistichthys luzonensis is the world's smallest commercially harvested fish and is found in Lakes Bato and Buhi in Camarines Sur in the Bicol Region. Another goby, Pandaka pygmaea, also found only in the Philippines, is the smallest known vertebrate and may be endangered.
Sinarapan, from the root word sarap or tasty, is a rare fish species found only in Lake Buhi in the Bicol Region. It is the smallest fish in the world of commercial value.  Overfishing and deterioration of its natural habitat have placed sinarapan under the list of threatened species, a prelude to the category of endangered species, a step away from extinction.

What attracts buyers and connoisseurs other than curiosity?  Well, like the dulong (ipon Ilk) it is indigenous which means it is a native delicacy, which not for long, it became commercialized. Dried sinarapan is quickly fried and served as shown in the photos. Its taste in not extraordinary, but you are eating the smallest commercial fish in the world and that’s something special. What with hundreds of helpless individuals in one bite!  Thousands in your plate, their large eyes focused on you. Personally, a first time experience is enough, and that would help conserved the species. ~

Monday, October 26, 2015

Ressurection and Regeneration

 Dr Abe V Rotor 
Field cricket (Acheta bimaculata) and sand crab can regenerate a lost leg or two, including the large hind legs, and pincers (crab).  Starfish when cut in half through the central disk will regenerate into two, each with complete arms .  



Old folks tell us of the magic of lizards growing new tails, crabs regaining lost claws, starfish arising from body pieces. How can we explain the mystery behind these stories?

The biological phenomenon behind these stories is called regeneration. 

The male deer grows a new set of anthers, and lose them after the mating season. Sea squirts and hydras are produced from tiny buds, so with yeast forming buds. This is the same way plants grow from cuttings, seaweeds grow from fragments, and algae from filaments. New worms may regenerate from just pieces of the body, and some fish can sprout new fins to replace the ones that have been bitten off.

Experiments demonstrated that the forelimb of a salamander severed midway between the elbow and the wrist, can actually grow into a new one exactly the same as the lost parts. The stump re-forms the missing forelimb, wrist, and digits within a few months.

In biology this is called redifferentiation, which means that the new tissues are capable of reproducing the actual structure and attendant function of the original tissues.

Studies on children who lose fingertips in accidents can regrow the tip of the digit provided their wounds are not sealed up with flaps of skin. They normally won't have a finger print, and if there is any piece of the finger nail left it will grow back as well, usually in a square shape rather than round.

Curious the kid I was, I examined a twitching piece of tail, without any trace of its owner. I was puzzled at what I saw. My father explained how the lizard, a skink or bubuli (alibut' Ilk), escaped its would-be predator by leaving its tail twitching to attract its enemy, while its tailless body stealthily went into hiding.

“It will grow a new tail,” father assured me. I have also witnessed tailless house lizards (butiki) growing back their tails at various stages, feeding on insects around a ceiling lamp. During the regeneration period these house lizards were not as agile as those with normal tails were, which led me to realize the importance of the tail.

Regeneration is a survival mechanism of many organisms. Even if you have successfully subdued a live crab you might end up holding only its pincers while the canny creature has gone back into the water. This is true also to grasshoppers; they escape by pulling away from their captors, leaving their large trapped hind legs behind. But soon, like their crustacean relatives, new appendages will start growing to replace the lost ones.

Another kind of regeneration is compensatory hypertrophy, a kind of temporary growth response that occurs in such organs as the liver and kidney when they are damaged. If a surgeon removes up to 70 percent of a diseased liver, the remaining liver tissues undergo rapid mitosis (multiplication of cells) until almost the original liver mass is restored. Similarly, if one kidney is removed, the other enlarges greatly to compensate for its lost partner.

Regeneration of the kidney is in the nephron, which is composed of the glomerulus, tubules, the collecting duct and peritubular capillaries. The regenerative capacity of the mammalian kidney however, is limited as compared to that of lower vertebrates.

How about the human skeleton? The ribs can regenerate with the periosteum, the membrane that surrounds the rib, is left intact. A research was conducted on rib material being used for skull reconstruction. In that particular operation, all 12 patients had complete regeneration of the resected rib. I would not however, relate this feat to Genesis on the theory of creation.

Organ transplantation in higher animals has thus succeeded extensively and is now a regular part in medical practice. Resurrecting the dead however, remains a mystery. Stories in the bible of the raising of Lazarus and the dead little girl remain a matter of faith.

Yet in our postmodern times, a hundred or so ultra rich people lie in cryonics tanks awaiting the time when science shall then have the power to resurrect them. Then there is a short cut to resurrection, so the movie Jurassic Park, make people believe - the reconstruction of the total organism from a piece of its DNA (deoxyribose nucleic acid).

Why such wide and varied aims of man? Not because of man's unending desire for wealth and power, but the belief that the living world has common answer to present day inquiries. For example, is vegetative reproduction limited to plants and protists, why not to mammals? Why are lichens older than most organisms, outliving them by years, if not centuries? Why is a single tissue capable of complete growth to form an entire organism, and that, from this organism another generation arises? If such is the case, then there is no real death of that organism after all. For is it not that life is a continuing process; the DNA is but a continuous stream from one generation to the next, ever young and vibrant, spreading into numbers we call population, and types we call diversity?

Then, if this is so, there is but a shade that separates regeneration and resurrection - or whatever terms we describe the continuity of life on earth.

Frolic - Children's Game

Dr Abe V Rotor

Frolic, Photo by Choanne Nikki Sucgang


Fight for joy or fight for gain,
     It is everybody's game,
victory or loss, or pain,
     children in frolic the same. 

Wish yesterday were today
     the child grownups envy,
with all the days of play,
     to keep the peace in me.~   

I asked God for more


Dr Abe V Rotor
Virgin Forest: only 3 percent is left in the Philippines.

Requiem to a forest, Brooke's Point, Palawan

I asked God for food, clothing and shelter
      and He showered me
these necessities I can not live without -
      they are the Earth's bounty;
I settled down on fertile hills and valleys
      and multiplied freely.

I asked God for power to boost my strength,
      and He gave me energy;
I leveled the mountains, dammed the rivers
      and conquered the sea;
raped the forests, prairies, lakes and estuaries,
      a world I wanted to be.

I asked God if I can be god, too, all knowing
      with my technology;
broke the sacred code of life and of matter,
      changed the Great Story;
annihilated life unfit in my own design,
      and set my own destiny.

I asked God if He is but a creation of the mind,
      and rose from my knee;
probed space, rounding up the universe,
      aiming at immortality;
bolder than ever, searching for another home,
      and wanting to be free. ~

Tuesday, October 13, 2015

I love the Hornbill (Kalaw)

I love the hornbill for being the subject of art of the young, reborn in the heart of the new generation.
Dr Abe V Rotor
 Hornbill by a stream (detail of a wall mural) by the author 2015

A pair of hornbill in pastel by Anna Christina Rotor

I love the hornbill for its colorful plumage, prominent in the distance, 
breaking the monotony of green foliage;

I love the hornbill for its huge bill from which it got its name - tough,
powerful, bright red with yellow and green;

I love the hornbill for its thunderous, resonating call, vibrating through 
the forest, echoing on cliffs and giant trees;

I love the hornbill for its gregarious nature, faithful to its family and clan, 
protective of its kind, and niche its home; 

I love the hornbill for being a guardian of the forest, sentinel at all times, 
and early rouser each day;

I love the hornbill for its presence - ultimate reference of an unspoiled  
landscape spared from human;

I love the hornbill for being the subject of art of the young, reborn
in the heart of the new generation. ~

Simplify Food Preparation - for Health, Enjoyment and Economy

 In observance of World Food Day October 16, 2015. Theme: “Social Protection and Agriculture: Breaking the Cycle of Rural Poverty”, and how this links with the UN theme for Expo 2015, “The Zero Hunger Challenge · United for a sustainable world”.
and International Day for the Eradication of Poverty, 17 October 2015. Theme: Building a sustainable future: Coming together to end poverty and discrimination

 

Dr Abe V Rotor
Living with Nature - School on Blog [avrotor.blogspot.com]
Paaralang Bayan sa Himpapawid  738 DZRB AM with Ms Melly C Tenorio 
8 to 9 evening class, Monday to Friday

 Simplify Food Preparation

1. FRESHNESS: There's no substitute to freshness - fruits picked from the tree, newly harvested vegetables, newly dressed chicken and slaughtered meat. 
  
Edible fern salad (with red egg, tomato, onion rings and vinegar)

2. CLEANLINESS: free from contamination, healthy source of crops and animals, strict sanitation and quarantine.

3. SIMPLE PREPARATION: broiled, steamed, boiled, blanched, and the like.

4. AVOID PROCESSED PRODUCTS: canned, hammed, pureed, and the like.

5. HOMEMADE: direct choice and preference of recipes, others

6. ECONOMICAL: less handling, less processing, less advertising.


7. EDUCATIONAL: to children, members of the household and immediate community.

8. PEACE O)F MIND: food security from vetsin (MSG), aspartame, olestra or fatless fat, decaf, enhancers.

9. HEALTH: investment and legacy to children and future generations.

10 PRODUCTIVITY: enjoyment in life and good health = high productivity. 

11. BONDING: with family, friends and neighbors

12: VALUES: free from guilt and fear, fulfillment, and confidence,        


 2. Twin fried eggs over brown rice (onion leaves topping)

 3. Halaan shell soup with sili (pepper) tops (thickened with corn starch)

4. Green corn on the cob (Serve with buko or young coconut juice, or just water)
5. Nangka served whole  
6. Empanada and ukoy (Eating while cooking)
7. Broiled tilapia cum scales (Burnt scale removes fishy taste and smell)
 
8. Tamales (fish steamed in banana leaves, add tomato, ginger,onion and a dash of salt)

9. Paksiw sapatero fish (Just don't overcook)

10. Diningding or bulanglang - the most complete one-dish meal. Right photo: native vegetables: patani, talong, alokong (himbaba-o), ampalaya), ingredients of the original Ilocano pinakbet 

 11. Squash ukoy, with small shrimps.  Serve while still hot.

 12. Fried tahong (green mussel). Be mindfull of the Red Tide Warning of the DOH.
13. A choice of plain rice and arroz valenciana
14. Sinangag rice ideal for breakfast (mold of one serving)
15. Tokwa (soybean curd). Also, TVP (Texturized Vegetable Protein 
which  looks and tastes like meat, also from soybean)

Monday, October 5, 2015

Living with Superstitious Beliefs



Three persons in a picture means the one at the middle will die. 
Dr Abe V Rotor 

There are 205 superstitious beliefs in this list.  Check those you believe to be true. Superstition may have scientific basis. Superstition is also influenced greatly by personal experience. Old folks usually affirm many superstitious beliefs. Why don't you listen to them once in a while?  Superstition is after all part of culture in any part of the world. 

1.    Forego your trip when a black cat crosses your path – it is bad luck.

2.    Don’t clean the house at night, more so, if you sweep the dirt out of the door. You drive good luck away, (Lalabas ang suwerte.)

3.    If you get lost in the wilderness, reverse your shirt, so that you will be able find your way back.

4.    Tikbalang (Filipino version of a centaur) comes out when it is raining  while the sun is out.

5.    Three persons in a picture means the one at the middle will die.

6.    A mole (taling) on the sole indicates the person is a wanderer (gala’).

7.    A mole (taling) located along the path of tears means the person is going to be widowed.

8.    Bride must never try her bridal gown before the wedding; the ceremony might not push through.

9.    Don’t hang on the window; you court bad luck.

10. Itchy palm means you are going to have money.

11. Keep your fingers close together and if light seeps through between them, it means you are not frugal.

12. Singing while cooking means you are going to remain a bachelor or spinster – or marry someone much older than you.

13.  A victim of maternal impression (paglilihi) loses pep (sigla) and may even get sick.

14. If a pregnant woman is in labor, never sit at the center of the stair.    

15. A comet in the sky means war is coming.

16. Eat raw eggs to enhance easy delivery of your baby.

17. A pregnant mother should not eat eggplant, else her baby will have dark complexion.  

18. One who cries every time she cuts onions means she does not love her father- and mother-in-law (biyanan).

19. Taking a bath immediately after ironing clothes will make you sick of leprosy.

20. If a pregnant woman eats eggs, her child will be born blind.

21. Full moon causes abnormal behavior.  People who are affected by this belief are called lunatics.

22. Beware of Friday the 13th, you might meet an accident.

23. No two siblings should marry within the same year, otherwise their marriages will not be successful.

24. When someone gives you a footwear as a gift, be sure to pay him any amount in order to break the omen that you will be “kicked” or pushed around.

25. When the
pregnant wife skips or walks over (laktawan) her husband, the husband will bear the burden of paglilihi (maternal impression).

26. If you want a person to be sad and to cry often, give him or her  a handkerchief as a gift.

27. One who is about to be wed must remain at home to avoid accident.

28. Avoid having your feet pointed at the door while sleeping.

29. Prepare rice cake like suman and tikoy on New Year so that good luck will stick around.    

30. When planting be sure your stomach is full, so that you will get good harvest.

31.  If you accidentally break a glass or china, get a similar one and break it, otherwise bad luck will haunt you.

32.  Breaking a mirror means “seven years itch.”

33.  If you dream you lost a tooth, it means is bad luck.  To break the omen, silently go to a tree and tell your dream so that it will be the tree that will suffer.

34. Needle bought in the afternoon is likely to rust.

35. A birthday celebrant must take extra precaution against accident, so with a new graduate. 

36. The bride should not look behind while marching the aisle, otherwise the wedding will not be disrupted.

37. The number of steps of a stair is based on the alternate oro (gold)-plata (silver) formula.  Aim for oro in the last or highest step.

38. Wearing bright clothes, especially red, on your birthday makes the day happy.

39. After the wedding the man must exit first from the church so that he will not become a henpeck husband. 

40. Don’t give your loved one a necklace, otherwise your relationship will not last.

41. Don’t allow your friend to remove your ring, otherwise you will quarrel.

42. Kill a chicken for a new born baby as an offering.  

43. Sweeping or cleaning the house while a dead relative is in wake will lead to the death of another member of the family.

44. Eating jackfruit during menstruation is prohibited otherwise the woman will get sick and even die.

45. When planting sitao (string bean), place a comb on your hair to induce the production of abundant long fruits.

46. Eating chicken cooked with squash will cause leprosy.

47. A woman on her menstrual period should not visit a garden or orchard otherwise the plants will become sick or die.

48. To know if it is true jade, it remains cool even if the body is warm.

49. Beware of the werewolf. Man can turn into a wolf, and vice versa.

50. Eight (8) is a lucky number; 8 is infinity. It means money will circulate.

51.  Four (4) means in Chinese C or death. Every time you reach an age with the number 9 or 4, take precaution; you are prone to accident.

52. Don’t cut fingernails at night; it’s bad luck.

53. In Chinese marriage, the woman walks backward led by a relative to be delivered to the bridegroom.

54. If a child keeps spitting, it will rain.

55. If you point at the moon your will suffer a cut.

56. Babies smile at angels we don’t see.

57. Fixed marriage at birth is good luck.

58. Chinese calendar is late by two months – New Year is in February.
     Chinese age starts one year at birth. 

59. Palm lines may change, so with our lives.

60. Blessed palm on Easter Sunday is hang at the door for good luck.

61. First cut hair and fingernails of a baby must be kept in a book so that he will be intelligent.

62. Wearing black is symbol of mourning; to the Chinese it is wearing all white.

63.  Among the Chinese, miniaturized house, car and the like, go with the departed to assure him of a happy afterlife. 

64. In a Chinese temple, you offer food to the gods, and then eat it after.  This is not the case in Filipino custom; just leave the food offering (atang).

65. To the Chinese, paper money goes with the dead; it will be converted into real money in afterlife.

66.  Light candles outside of the house during All Saints Day in deference to  of the souls of the dead and the unseen.

67. When you happen to encounter a funeral entourage, throw some coins in respect of the dead.  

68. Don’t stand in front of a gate if you are pregnant.

69. If by mistake it’s the bride that hands over the arras to the bridegroom, expect that she will be the breadwinner. 

70. Diamond studded wedding rings do not make a perfect relationship.

71. When blessing a new vehicle, sprinkler fresh blood of chicken in tires and engine to bad omen of accident.

72. Place some coins in the foundation of buildings and other structures during ground breaking ceremony to make them strong and withstand time.

73. Children are sacrificed in making bridges and other infrastructure.

74. Bury placenta with rosary and pencil so that the child will be both intelligent and God-fearing.

75. Palms with crisscross lines (rapas Ilk) means the person is cruel.

76. Palms with netted lines means the person has an unorganized life (magulong buhay).

77. Shake (pagpagin) the items such as clothes after a customer had left without buying any, to break bad luck.

78. Place money in a bed pan (arinola), so that it becomes plentiful.

79. Babies that fall from their cradle do not suffer injury, thanks to their guardian angels.

80. When you give a wallet as gift be sure you put a coin or a money bill in it so that the wallet won’t run out of money.

81. When transferring to a new house carry with you 24 oranges, salt, water, and rice.

82. Jade stones around the wrist of a baby indicate his condition.  If they turn light in color the baby is not well.

83. When transferring a dead person into the house, be sure it is head first; when taking him out, it is feet first.

100. Bed must not face the door, otherwise the sleeping person will become a   victim of bangongot.

101. Don’t bump the coffin while carrying it; it is bad luck.

102. Pour water at the doorway once the coffin has been taken out.

103. Wash face and hands after the dead has been laid to rest.

104. When coming from a wake have a stopover somewhere and do not directly go home, otherwise the spirit of the dead will follow you.

105. The wishbone of a chicken makes a wholesome game for two. Wish comes true to the one who gets the common stem of the Y-shape bone.

106.  One can determine the sex of the baby by the poise and shape of the pregnant woman. If rotund, it’s going to be a girl; if pointed, it’s going to be a boy.           

107. During labor, if the pain is bearable and continuous, it’s going to be a girl; if labor pain is intermittent and intense, it’s going to be a boy.

108. When leaving the dining table ahead, those who are still eating must rotate their plates, otherwise they will remain bachelors or spinsters. (The belief is silent on the fate of the married ones.)

109. Couple to be married the following day must not see each other the night before.

110. When Friday comes don’t talk about the supernatural, such as kapre, dwende, and the like.
 
111. Never buy a cat; it will not be a good mouse catcher.

112. If a cat sneezes it’s going to rain.  But if it sneezes three times, everyone in the family will catch cold.

113. A cat that has its back towards the fire means a typhoon in coming.

114. Unfortunate events usually happen on full moon.

115. Whenever you go to a church for the first time make three wishes.

116. If you buy a stuffed or figurine elephant, choose one with its trunk turned upward.  It means good luck.

117. Don’t open the umbrella inside the house; vermin will come out.

118. When planting beans, place a comb on your hair to induce the production of abundant long fruits.

119. Orange clouds are bad omen; they are signs of either drought or poor harvest.

120. If you accidentally bite your tongue it means someone is speaking about you.

121. Knock only twice – not thrice, else you court the attention of the devil.

122. Sleep with your head toward the east or north to prevent nightmares.

123. To keep luck for yourself and the family hang a horseshoe with its tips up.  If you want your luck to be shared with those who enter your house, hang it the opposite way.

124. If your nose itches, someone is thinking about you.

126. Never take home flowers from the cemetery, otherwise someone is going to die.

127. Eating sour fruits during menstruation will cause menstruation to stop.

128. Girls on their very first day of menstruation are asked to jump down from the third step of the stairs in order to limit their monthly period to three days only. 

129. The stained underwear of a girl on her very first day of menstruation is asked to wipe her face with it so that she will have a beautiful, fair and acne-free face.

130. Peanuts eaten raw will make one intelligent.

131. A cogon grass tied around the one’s head or waistline is a protection against lightning, especially in the open field.

132. If the money spent on wedding was borrowed, the couple will always be in debt.

133. A pregnant woman should not scratch her tummy, otherwise she will develop stretch marks.

134. Bite the tip of your new shoes to avoid developing blister (paltos or kapuyo Ilk).

135. A conceiving mother who enjoys looking at the corn hair will give birth to a brown-haired baby.

136. Calachuche or frangipani growing in the front of a house brings bad luck.

137. Pomelo (Citrus maxima) growing in front of, or bear a house, brings bad luck.

138. Katuray (Sesbania grandiflora) planted in front of a house might bring about a broken home or the disruption of good family relationships.

139. A woman should not be the first to gather sweet potato (kamote), otherwise the roots will crack.

140. Bury a big coconut shell along with the first potato yam seedling in order that the plant with produce big roots.

141. One must not spit in the fields while planting because it brings bad luck.

142. Offering native cakes under the tree will please the spirits (anitos). 

143. Eating malunggay (Moringa oleracea) when somebody dies will cause another death to follow.

144. Certain seasons during which children become suddenly fond of playing games like sungka, marbles, jackstone. And the like, are expected to bring good harvest.

145. Playing sungka is bad because of the nature of the game to “kill” your opponent.

146. Do not plant on Tuesdays and Fridays because they are unlucky days.

147. Bury some pieces of beeswax along with squash seeds when planting so that the fruits produced will be glutinous (malagkit).

148. A person who eats any ripe fruit that is partly eaten by a mouse will develop twinkling eyes.

149. Do not eat leafy vegetables on New Year’s Day else you will be sickly the whole year.

150. Don’t cook leafy vegetables at the time of planting otherwise the plants will wither.

151. Don’t harm the seƱora, the matron rat; otherwise it will destroy more things in the house. In India rats are believed to be the re-incarnation of dead ancestors.  Sometimes rats are called kabas, meaning little children, so that they are often treated with favor.

151. Papaya with fruits borne on elongated stem (peduncle) is said to be bisexual (bakla).  The male papaya bears only staminate flowers, never any fruit; while the female produces the typical fruits we are familiar with.

152. Avoid mending clothes at night; it might cause blindness. 

153. Avoid taking home food in a wake; otherwise a close relative is going to die.

154. Cat purring means it is comfortable in your company and care.

155. During funeral never look back, otherwise somebody is going to die.

156. Walking under a ladder brings bad luck.

157. If ants transfer to another place, the rainy season is near.

158. You will increase in height if you jump at exactly 12 o’clock noon.

159. Never buy needle at night, it will rust, so with the rest of the needles.

160. If you keep a cactus, you will remain single forever.

161. If a butterfly lands on you it means you are visited by the soul of a close relative.

162. Loves me, loves me not, is a favorite wish game, plucking petals of a flower one by one until you reach the last.

163. If a bee enters your house, it’s a sign that you will soon have a visitor.  If you kill the bee you will have bad luck or the visitor is unpleasing one.

164. A swarm of bees settling on the roof is an omen the house will burn down.

165. A bird that enters the house is a sign of death.

166. If you blow all the candles out with a single puff, you will get your birthday wish.

167. The elevator does not open on the 13th floor.

168. It’s bad to expose a pregnant woman’s belly to photo flash – she will give birth to a baby with physical defect.

169. It’s bad luck to cut nails on Fridays and Saturdays.

170. Our shadow is our soul.  A person who thinks he does not have any shadow will be mistaken to be a devil. 

171. When a pencil suspended with string is placed over the wrist of a pregnant woman, and swings along the length of the arm, the baby in the womb is a likely a boy.  If it swings across the arm the baby is a girl.

172. Banana with freckles and discolorations means it is sweet.

173. Water the plants with hugas bigas (rice washing), and they will grow fast and healthy.

174. Don’t take a bath during the wake of an immediate family member.

175. Put salt on the lower corners of the door jamb before going out of the house.

176. Egg shells induce flowering of orchids.

177. Place charcoal inside a refrigerator to remove bad odor. Vinegar does the trick, too.

178. Wipe kitchen and dining tables with mild solution of natural vinegar to repel ants and other vermin.

179. If the first butterfly you see on New Year is white, you will have good luck throughout the year.

180. If a lighted candled during a ceremony dies out, it means evil spirits are around.

181. If a black cat walks towards you, you will have good fortune; if it walks away from you, it takes away good luck.

182. Keep cats away from babies because they will suck out their breaths.

183. If a clock that has not been working suddenly chimes, it means there will be death in the family.

184. It is bad luck to pick up a coin with the tail side up; good luck when its head up.

185. Cows lifting their tails mean it’s going to rain.

186. A cricket in the house brings good luck.

187. If an eyelash falls out, put it on the back of you hand, make a wish and throw it over your shoulder. If it flies off the hand, the wish will be granted. 

188. Fingernails cuttings should be saved, burned or buried.

189. If the bottom of your right foot itches, you are going to take a trip.

190. Pulling out a gray or while hair will cause ten more to grow in its place.

191. If the palm of your right hand itches, it means you will soon be getting money.  If the palm of your left hand itches, it means you will soon be paying out money.

192. A mirror should be covered during a thunderstorm because it attracts lightning.

193. An onion cut in half and placed under the bed of a sick person will draw off fever and poison.

194. Wishes on shooting stars come true.

195. Tail of house lizards is cure for asthma.

196. Ones saliva can relieve itchiness caused by mosquito bite.

197. Poultice of gumamela flowers hastens “ripening” of boil (pigsa).

198. Turtles as pet bring bad luck.

199. Snakes have good memory, never spare their lives because they can take revenge.

200. Refrain from talking while planting so the chicken will not destroy your plants.

201. When cockroaches are flying about, there’s plenty of fish to catch.

202. Don’t sleep with your head pointed to the north.  Blood is drawn to your head due to magnetism, similar to a compass needle.

203. Whenever you give birth, plant a tree because a tree grows fast and means good health - so with your baby.

204. There are times you have to turn back because you have forgotten something.  Before you start again alight from your vehicle, or take a few steps, to break the bad omen. 

205. To get good grades place your review notes or book under your pillow and sleep on it.